10 Discoveries by Ancient Indian Scientists!

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The history of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent begins with prehistoric human activity in the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires. Following independence, science and technology in the Republic of India has included automobile engineering, information technology, communications as well as space, polar, and nuclear sciences.

1. The Zero(0)

The place-value system, first seen in the 3rd-century Bakhshali Manuscript, was clearly in place in Aryabhata’s work. While he did not use a symbol for zero, the French mathematician Georges Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata’s place value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients.

However, Aryabhata did not use the Brahmi numerals. Continuing the Sanskritic tradition from Vedic times, he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form

2.Approximation of Pi

Aryabhata worked on the approximation for pi (π), and may have come to the conclusion that π is irrational. In the second part of the Aryabhatiyam (gaṇitapāda 10), he writes:

caturadhikaṃ śatamaṣṭaguṇaṃ dvāṣaṣṭistathā sahasrāṇām
ayutadvayaviṣkambhasyāsanno vṛttapariṇāhaḥ.

“Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached.”

This implies that for a circle whose diameter is 20000, the circumference will be 62832

i.e, pi  =  62832 \ 20000 = { 3.1416} , which is accurate to three decimal places.

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3. Binary Numbers

Binary numbers are the basic language that is written to the computer programs. Binary basically refers to a set of two numbers 1 and 0, the combinations thereof are called bits and bytes. The binary number system was first described by the Vedic scholar Pingala, in his book Chandahśāstra, which the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody (the study of poetic meter and verse).

4. Algebra

In Aryabhatiya, Aryabhata provided elegant results for the summation of series of squares and cubes: 1^{2}+2^{2}+….+n^{2}={n(n+1)(2n+1) \ 6}}

and 1^{3}+2^{3}+…..+n^{3}=(1+2+….+n)^{2

5.Fibonacci Numbers

The Fibonacci numbers and their order first appear in Indian mathematics as mātrāmeru mentioned by Pingala in connection with the Sanskrit tradition of prosody. Later, the process for the formation of these numbers of mathematicians Virahanka, Gopala and Hemacandra the fascinating sequence were given much before the Italian mathematician Fibonacci introduced to Western European mathematics.

6. Ruler measurements

The excavations in Harappans sites have resulted from ivory and shell of rulers or linear measures. staked minutes into subdivisions with amazing accuracy calibrations correspond closely with the hasta increments of 1 3/8 inches, traditionally used in the old architecture of South India. Old bricks at the archaeological excavations have found dimensions that correspond to the units on these rulers.

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7. Theory of Atoms

One of the remarkable scientists of ancient India was Kanad, who is said to have developed the atomic theory centuries before John Dalton was born. He speculated the existence of Anu or a small indestructible particles, similar to an atom. He also explained that Anu can have two states – absolute peace and a state of movement. He continues to be held, the atoms of the same substance combined with each other and in a specific manner synchronized dvyanuka (diatomic molecule) to generate and tryanuka (triatomic molecules).

8. Plastic surgery

Written by Sushruta in the 6th century BC, Sushruta Samhita is considered one of the most comprehensive textbooks of the old surgery. The text mentions various diseases, plants, preparations and remedy along with complex plastic surgery techniques. The Sushruta Samhita, s best-known contribution to plastic surgery is the reconstruction of the nose, known as rhinoplasty

9. Ayurveda

Long before the birth of Hippocrates, Charaka authored a seminal text, Charakasamhita, on the ancient science of Ayurveda. Referred to as the father of Indian medicine, Charaka was was the first physician to present the concept of digestion metabolism and immunity in his book. Charaka the old manual on preventive medicine remained a standard work on the subject for two thousand years and has been translated into many languages, including Arabic and Latin.

10. Astronomy

Age India contributions to the field of astronomy are well known and well documented. The earliest references to astronomy in the Rig Veda, found that are dated 2000 BC. During the next 2500 years, built around 500 AD, ancient Indian astronomy as an important part of Indian studies and its impact on reflected seen that time in several treatises. In some cases, astronomical principles of astrology in terms of how casting a horoscope were borrowed to explain matters. Apart from this link of astronomy with astrology in ancient India to continue to develop independent science of astronomy and culminated in initial results, such as:

i.The calculation of occurrences of eclipses

ii.Determination of Earth’s circumference

iii.Theorizing about the theory of gravitation

iv.Determining that sun was a star and determination of number of planets under our solar system

The Pleiades hold a prominent place than the mothers or nurses the newborn in one of the oldest and most central Hindu myths of the birth of the war god Rudra / Skanda, which is evident, among other things, the rising victorious sun (and how Spring Sun the new Year). The Pleiades are said to have been the women of the seven sages, who are identified with the seven stars of the Big Dipper.

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The old people of the Great Bear Tamil name elu-meen, seven star ‘corresponds to the combination of, 7’ + pictograms, fish ‘, which forms the seal alone the entire text of a finely carved Indus. The Satapatha Brahman states that the six Pleiades were separated from their husbands because of their infidelity; specify other texts that only one of the seven women, Arundhati, remained faithful and was allowed to stay with her husband: it is the small star Alcor in the Great Bear is exhibited in the Vedic marriage to the bride as a paradigm of marital virtue ceremonies.

Evidence for the Harappan origin of this myth is provided, inter alia, by Indus seals, which show a series of six or seven human figures; her female character is suggested by a long braid of hair that remained characteristic to this day the Indian ladies.

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Published by Rathindranath

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